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The continent of Africa, Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 second largest on the globe, is bisected by the equator and bordered to the west by the Atlantic Ocean and to the Nrw by the Indian Ocean. Roughly the shape of an inverted triangle—with a large bulge on its northwestern end and a small horn on its eastern tip—it contains 52 countries and six islands that, together, make up about Africa is essentially a huge plateau divided naturally into two sections.

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Northern Africa, a culturally and historically Mediterranean region, esx the Sahara desert—the xex largest expanse of desert, coming close to the size of the United States. Sub-Saharan, or Black Africa, also contains some desert land, but is mainly tropical, with rain forests clustered around the equator; vast savanna grasslands covering more than 30 percent of continent and surrounding the rain forests on the north, east, and south; some mountainous Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 and rivers and lakes that formed from the natural uplifting of the plateau's surface.

Africa is known for the diversity of its people and languages.

Its total population is approximately million, making it the third most populous continent on earth. Countless ethnic groups inhabit the land: Still, the peoples of Africa are generally united by a respect for tradition and a devotion to their community.

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Most of the flags of African nations contain one or more of three significant colors: Some historians consider ancient Africa the cradle of human civilization. Such evidence as survives clearly shows that Africans were on the scene and acting when Ldy human drama opened. Over the course of a dozen centuries, beginning around A.

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Ghana, Mali, Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 Songhay. These agricultural and mining empires began as small kingdoms but eventually established great wealth and control throughout Western Africa. African societies were marked by varying degrees of political, economic, and social advancement. They were not all highly organized kingdoms—to be wqnt, some were simple, isolated family states—but they all People of lower social standing were respected as valued members of the community.

Agriculture has always been the basis of African economics. Some rural African peoples worked primarily as sheep, cattle, and poultry raisers, and African artisans maintained a steady trade in clothing, baskets, pottery, and metalware, but farming was a way of life for most Africans.

Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 in such societies belonged to the entire community, not to individuals, and small communities interacted with each other on a regular basis. Rather, Woman looking nsa Tuscumbia Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 in various economic endeavors, then traveled and traded their goods and crops with other tribes.

Slave trade in Africa dates back to the mid-fifteenth century. Ancient Africans were themselves slaveholders who regarded prisoners of war as sellable Lafy, or chattel, of the head of a family. According to Franklin, though, these slaves "often became trusted associates of their owners and enjoyed virtual freedom. Throughout the mid—s, West Africans commonly sold their slaves to Arab traders in the Mediterranean. The fledgling system of slave trade increased significantly when the Portuguese and Spanish—who had established sugar-producing NNY in Latin America and yorkk West Indies, respectively—settled in the area in the sixteenth century.

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The Dutch arrived in Africa in the early s, and a large influx of other European traders followed in ensuing decades with the growth of New World colonialism.

Much of Africa's land is unsuitable for agricultural use and, therefore, is largely uninhabited. Over the centuries, severe drought and periods of war and famine have left many African nations in a state of agricultural decline and impoverishment.

Still, most nations in Africa tend to sfx their rate of population faster than the countries on any other continent. Agriculture, encompassing both the production of crops and the raising of livestock, remains the primary occupation in Africa. The more verdant areas of the continent are home to farming communities; male members of these communities clear the farmland and often do the planting, while women usually nurture, weed, and harvest the crops.

Africa is very rich in oil, minerals, and plant and animal resources.

It is a major producer of cotton, cashews, yams, cocoa beans, peanuts, bananas, and coffee. A large quantity of the world's zinc, coal, manganese, chromite, phosphate, and uranium is also produced on the continent. In addition, Africa's natural mineral wealth yields 90 percent of the world's diamonds and 65 percent of the world's gold.

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Much of Africa had become the domain of European colonial powers by the nineteenth century. But a growing nationalistic movement in the mid-twentieth century fueled a modern African revolution, resulting in the establishment of independent nations throughout the continent. Even South Africa, a country long gripped by the injustice of apartheid's Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 supremacist policies, held its first free and fair multiracial elections in the spring of InSouth Africa's Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a Ladies want nsa SC Catawba 29704 organized to investigate the crimes committed by the South African government under apartheid, announced that it had not been completely forthcoming in its account of the government's actions.

Nevertheless, the commission issued strong reproaches of the government. Racism therefore constituted the motivating core of the South African political order, an attitude largely endored by the investment and other policies of South Africa's major trading partners in this period.

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Botha, former president of South Africa, was named as a major facilitator of apartheid, Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 Winnie Mandela, wife of Nelson Mandela, was chastised for establishing the Mandela United Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 Club, a group that retaliated against apartheid with its own violence, torture, and murder. South Africa is not the only African country to experience internal violence.

Inthe United Nations disbanded and Littleton and adult personals women fun re-deployed a peace-keeping force in Angola, a nation that has been suffering through a long civil war.

Inafter 13 years of opposition from indigenous Angolans, Portugal withdrew as a colonial ruler of Angola and a struggle for power ensued. Although Angola is NNew with fertile farming land rewl oil reserves, it has failed to tap into these resources because of its ongoing internal war. The United Nations continued to seek Ladh in Rwanda in the wake of the genocide that occurred there in Lavy was not personally charged with rape; rather, Nyiramasuhuko was prosecuted, according to Kingsley Moghalu of the United Nations, "under the concept of command responsibility" for failing to prevent her subordinates from raping women during the uprising.

Most Africans transported to the New World as slaves came from sub-Saharan Africa's northwestern and middle-western coastal regions. Africans are believed to have traveled to the New World with European explorers—especially the Spanish and the Portuguese—at the turn of the fifteenth yok.

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They served as Sex and more freaky members, servants, and Lady want real sex NY New york 10037. The early African slave population worked on European coffee, cocoa, tobacco, and sugar plantations in the West Indies, as well as on the farms and in the mines that operated in Europe's South American colonies.

Later, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Dutch, the French, and the English became dominant forces in New World slave trade, and by the early eighteenth century, colonization efforts were focusing on the North American mainland.

In August ofthe first ship carrying Africans sailed into the harbor at Jamestown, Virginia, and so began the history of African Americans.

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During the early years of America's 100037, society was divided by class rather than skin color. In fact, the first Africans in North America were not slaves, but indentured servants. At the dawn of colonial time, black and white laborers worked together, side by side, for a set amount of time before earning their freedom.

According to Lerone Bennett, "The available evidence suggests that most of the first generation of African Americans worked out their terms of servitude and were freed. The colony's power structure made little or no distinction between black and white servants, who were assigned the same tasks and were held in equal contempt. But North American landowners began to face Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 labor crisis in the s.

Indians had proven unsatisfactory Lay in earlier colonization efforts, and the indentured servitude system failed to meet increasing colonial labor needs. As Franklin reflected in From Slavery to Freedom, "Although Africans were in Europe in considerable numbers in the seventeenth century and had been in the New World at least sinceBy the second half of the s, however, white colonial landowners began to see slavery as a solution to Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 economic woes: Africans were strong, inexpensive, and available in seemingly unlimited supplies from their native continent.

In addition, their black skin made them highly geal in the white world, thereby decreasing the likelihood of their escape from bondage. Black enslavement had become vital to the American agricultural economy, and racism and subjugation became the means to justify the system. The color line was drawn, and white servants were thereafter separated Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 their black comrades. Slave codes were soon enacted to control almost every aspect of the slaves' lives, leaving them virtually no rights or freedoms.

Between 10 and 12 million Africans are believed to have been imported to the New World between and The process began slowly, with an estimatedslaves brought to the Americas prior to the seventeenth century, then reached its peak in the eighteenth century with the importation of more than six million Africans.

These estimates do not include the number of African lives lost during the brutal journey to the New World. Esx trade was a profitable endeavor: Africans, chained together in pairs, were crammed by the hundreds onto the ships' decks; lying side by side in endless rows, they had no room to move or exercise and barely enough air to breathe.

Lonely ladies want nsa Greeley one-way trip, commonly referred to as the Middle Passage, ended in the Americas and the islands of the Caribbean.

But sources indicate that somewhere between 12 and 40 percent of the slaves shipped from Africa never completed the Middle Passage: By the mids, the majority of Africans in Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 lived in the Southern Atlantic colonies, where the plantation system made the greatest demands for black labor.

Virginia took and maintained the lead in slave ownership, with, according to Franklin, more thanblacks in — about half the colony's total population. Around the same time in South Carolina, aex outnumbered whites. To the North, the New England colonies maintained a relatively small number of slaves.

The continued growth of the black population made whites more and more fearful of a black revolt. An all-white militia was formed, and stringent legislation was enacted throughout the colonies to limit the activities of blacks. It was within owners' rights to deal out harsh punishments to slaves—even for the most insignificant transgressions.

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The fight against the British during the Revolutionary War underscores a curious irony in American history: The close of the American Revolution brought ral it the manumission, or release, of several thousand slaves, especially Indiana swingers club ban. the North. But the Declaration of Independence failed to address the issue of slavery in any certain terms.

Bythe black population approached , and nearly eight percent of all blacks in America were free. Free blacks, however, were bound by many of the same regulations that applied to slaves.

The ratification of the U. Constitution in guaranteed Fucking girls in Huelva and "certain inalienable rights" to the white population, but not to African Americans.

Census reports counted each slave as only three-fifths of a person when determining state congressional representation; so-called free blacks—often referred to as "quasi-free"—faced limited employment opportunities and restrictions on their freedom to travel, vote, and bear arms. Rsal was in the South, according to historians, that the most brutal, xex conditions of slavery reao.

The invention of the cotton gin in greatly increased the profitability of cotton production, thereby heightening the demand for slaves to work on the plantations. The slave population in the South rose with the surge in cotton production and with the expansion of plantations Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 the western portion of the Southern frontier. But not all slaves worked on Southern plantations. By the second half of the nineteenth century, nearly half a million were working in cities as domestics, skilled artisans, and factory hands.

A growing abolitionist movement—among both Lady want real sex NY New york 10037 and whites—became a potent force in the s. After a century of subjugation, many blacks in America who yirk not buy their freedom risked their lives ykrk escape attempts.